The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine, food, and as a source of oil and wood. Known Hazards. The bark is used as a fish poison[. () Medicinal Importance of Holoptelea Integrifolia (Roxb).Planch – Its Biological and Pharmacological Activities. Nat Prod Chem Res doi. Common name: Indian Elm, entire-leaved elm tree, jungle cork tree, south Indian elm tree • Hindi: चिलबिल chilbil, कान्जू kanju, पपड़ी.
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To receive news and publication updates for BioMed Research International, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Integriifolia Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Holoptelea integrifolia Ulmaceae is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies.
It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds.
In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities.
Phytochemical analysis showed the integrifoliz of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and hollptelea. The results of several studies indicated that H.
However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. Plants have been rich source of medicinal agents since time immemorial.
They have remained main components of various traditional systems of medicine, namelyAyurveda, Unani, Siddha, Chinese, and so forth. Plant species has remained a good source of anti-infective agents, which are cost-effective and have fewer side effects [ 1 ].
Many developing countries all over the world have intensified their efforts in documenting the ethnomedical data and scientific research on medicinal plants. It is estimated that there aretospecies of plants on earth [ 2 ]. There are about 47, plant species in India, out of which 7, plant species are of medicinal value; only plant species are used in the preparation of herbal drugs. A vast proportion of the available higher plant species have not yet been screened for biologically active compounds; drug discovery from plants should remain an essential component in the search for new medicines.
Herbal medicines have recently attracted much attention as alternative medicines useful for treating or preventing lifestyle-related disorders, but relatively very little knowledge is available about their mode of action.
There has been a growing interest in the analysis of plant products which has stimulated intense research on their potential health benefits. The review of H. Previous reviews were based on simple ethnobotanical uses and few pharmacological activities of the species. Hence, an attempt was made to update the complete information on botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of the species.
The information provided was taken from different sources like worldwide accepted scientific database Scopus http: The plant species originated from Pacific Islands [ 3 ]. Integriolia is distributed in temperate and tropical areas of northern hemispheres.
Leaves are simple, alternate, stipulate, ovate or elliptic-ovate, and acuminate in shape. The bark when cut and leaves when crushed emit an unpleasant odor. Flowers are small, greenish-purple, and polygamous and found hlooptelea short racemes or axillary fascicles. In male flowers, there are 8 stamens and in bisexual flowers 5 stamens are present.
Ovary is superior, unilocular, compressed, and stalked. Style is very short 2. Fruits are one seeded samara, light brown, obliquely elliptic or orbicular, winged and stalked, indehiscent, and 2.
Flowering and fruiting are seen during the months of February-March. Seeds are small, whitish, and kidney shaped. Holoptelea integrifolia has many common names depending upon the languages spoken in a particular region. The names used in different languages are presented in Table 1.
The plant is commonly cultivated by the transplantation of nursery-raised seedlings. The seedlings are kept in the transplant beds for two years and then planted in the season of monsoon.
Continuous watering is required in both cases. Generally the plant is disease free; however, some pests attack it. Major pests of the tree are the tree borers of the groups Bostrichidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Platypodidae, which commonly infest the stem and young leaves. The plant Holoptelea integrifolia is used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, gastritis, dyspepsia, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wound healing, leprosy, diabetes, hemorrhoids, dysmenorrhea, and rheumatism [ 5 ].
Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. | Species | India Biodiversity Portal
Bark and leaves are used as bitter, astringent, thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, carminative, laxative, anthelmintic, depurative, repulsive, and urinary astringent [ 6 ]. Ethnomedicinally, the leaves and stem bark of H. The mucilaginous bark is boiled and the juice squeezed out and applied to rheumatic swellings [ 7 ]. Paste of the stem bark is externally applied to treat the inflammation of lymph glands, ringworm, and scabies.
Decoction of the leaves is used to regulate fat metabolism, treat ringworm, eczema, and cutaneous diseases [ 8 ]. Stem bark acts as an anti-inflammatory agent specifically for eyes. Stem bark paste is externally applied on forehead of the patient suffering from common fever [ 9 ]. Bark and leaf paste of the plant are applied externally on the white patches or leucoderma. Bark boiled in coconut oil and mixed with garlic is applied externally to intsgrifolia [ 10 ]. For treatment of herpes simplex infection, bark paste is applied over the affected part until it disappears.
Bark cut in the shape of a coin is tied on left arm below the shoulder for treatment of malaria [ 11 ]. It is also used for the treatment of intestinal cancer [ 12 ]. Leaf bud mixed with lime juice is applied externally to affected area for treatment of hair loss by infection [ 13 ].
Bark grounded with lemon juice and made into paste is used for weakness [ 14 ]. Seeds holo;telea used especially on ringworm and dried fruit in polyurea and urinary disorders [ 15 ]. Even though several traditional uses of H. Table 3 provides an overview on pharmacological properties of H.
In the proceeding text some of the available reports pertaining towards the important pharmacological potential of H. The diethyl ether extract has shown the highest activity and the active principle responsible for the present activity was integrifopia to be 1, 4-naphthalenedione. Padmaa and Durga [ 17 ] evaluated petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts of stem bark of H.
Chloroform extract was found to be most effective against all the integrioflia microorganisms. In the following year, Ahmad et al.
The antibacterial sensitivity was analyzed using disk diffusion method at various concentrations where zone of inhibition was compared with the standard drug cefotaxime. The overall antibacterial activity of H. The minimum interifolia concentration MIC for chloroform leaf extract was found to be 1. Another group, Joshi et al.
Alcoholic extract showed moderate to good antibacterial and antitubercular activity.
The alcoholic leaf and stem extracts of H. The results indicated that C. Their MICs ranged from The lowest MMC minimum microbicidal concentration observed was The hydroethanolic extract of leaves was fractionated by differential solubility method and only the petroleum ether extract was holotelea to have fungitoxicity.
The active fraction, at MIC, was able to withstand heavy inoculum density, killed the test pathogen in 1. It could be more holoptleea used at any pH between 4 and 9 and may prove to be superior to other commercial fungicides.
The active fraction proved to be nonphytotoxic and it stimulated the rate of seed germination and seedling growth of Capsicum annuum seeds.
The in vitro antifungal assay was integridolia by agar diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration MIC for hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanolic and aqueous fractions. Among these, ethyl acetate extract exhibited maximum antifungal activity against Alternaria sp.
Anti-inflammatory activity of H. The aqueous extract of H.
The extract administered orally produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation. In another report, Kalpana and Upadhyay [ 24 ] investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.
A significant percentage inhibition of paw edema by the extract as compared to standard drug suggests its usefulness in acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models. Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic worms helminths from the body, by either stunning or killing them. They may also be called vermifuges stunning or vermicides killing. The first report on antihelminthic activity of H.
The activity of different stem bark extracts was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma. Among all the extracts tested, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed better and dose-dependent activity in comparison with reference standard piperazine citrate. In another study, Kaur et al. The bioassay revealed that the ethanolic and aqueous extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentration.
The ethanolic extract showed shortest time of paralysis 6. The results were comparable with standard piperazine citrate 2. An antioxidant is a molecule that can terminate chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibit other oxidation reactions. Holoptelea integrifolia possess antioxidants which are responsible for the scavenging activity through various mechanisms. In one study, Saraswathy et al. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated by two different methods, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods at a concentration of 0.
In FTC method, the control showed highest absorbance value 0. Thus ethanolic extract exhibited significant in vitro antioxidant activity by inhibiting the oxidation of linoleic acid in both FTC and TBA methods. Recently, Srivastava et al.