Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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No fragments survive, however, so there is no way to make an informed judgment on the relationship between that work and Pr. Is it because some of the drugs which affect the stomach are hot and others cold, so that some of them, owing to their heat, as soon as they reach the upper part of the stomach are carried thence to the upper region of the body, 4 melting in particular 5 any thing there G which is most alien to them and least substan tial ; and if the drug be powerful or has been administered 10 in a dose stronger than nature can withstand, it carries these liquefactions 7 and any excretions that there may be down into the upper part of the stomach, and by its heat stirring up the breath, which it engenders in great quantity, checks 1 A species of convolvulus found in Asia yielding a resinous gum.

For the 20 heat in them causes quick digestion, 1 and their odour has no corporeal existence ; for even strong-smelling 2 plants, such as garlic, promote the flow of urine owing to their heat, though their wasting effect is a still more arlstotle characteristic ; but sweet-smelling seeds contain heat. If so, it would be more necessary to perspire in the summer, 4 when a violent 1 We should perhaps read from Theoph.

Those then who are chilled tremble because the heat in them is extinguished by probkemata cold. Also people are least inclined for sexual intercourse after food and are recommended to take a heavy midday meal and a light supper with a view to it, for the heat and moisture move upwards when the food is unconcocted and arisfotle wards when it is concocted ; and the semen is formed from concocted food.

Moreover any thing else which is produced from the semen, as for instance, when it putrefies, a worm, or the so-called monstrosities, 2 o when there is corruption in the womb, are not to be reckoned as offspring.

Nor does it require melting, for it is dispersed about the body like blood. And what zristotle been said generally as to the effect of the seasons applies also in detail ; for changes of winds and of age and of locality are to some extent 20 changes of season.

Project MUSE – Aristotle’s Problemata in Different Times and Tongues

Why is it that in the winter perspiration is given off less 42 freely and we do not feel the same desire to induce it, although our bodies are moister in the winter? Walking on hard, resisting ground causes fatigue to the muscles and tendons of the legs ; for it causes tension in the sinews and muscles, because the pressure upon them is violent.


For, mark you, where there is a great fire, a flame cannot burn ; for the great fire attracts and b absorbs the little fire.

Things of Unpleasant Odour. The moisture then, being cut off, collects, and when the breath is relaxed aritsotle all out at once.


Consequently the nature of the heat 3 which carries us along does not undergo any 35 strain when we are going down hill, but has to bear a con tinual burden when we are walking up hill ; and so it grows exceedingly hot by movement of this kind and causes more profuse perspiration and obstructs the breath.

Further, the viscous and adhesive matter is expelled with the moisture, because it mingles with it, but it cannot be expelled with the breath ; 5 and it is this thick matter in particular that causes pain. This also occurs for the same reason in certain forms of illness, 5 and likewise in those who are frightened and in the dying.

Most remedies, therefore, for stanching blood are pungent, so as to cause contraction.

For probemata are contrary states, the frenzied being in a state of excessive movement and the stupid in a condition of too little move ment. They must therefore become perverted and aim at something other than the discharge of semen.

EL i83 b 22, E.

The corruption, however, is probably more serious and eTreivtyepoptvuv perhans belongs to the previous sentence, cp. For this reason 1 Omitting Se after Bia ; the sentence otherwise has no principal verb. For then, owing to the arstotle of.

The collection, gradually assembled by the peripatetic schoolreached its final form anywhere between the third century BC to the 6th century AD.

Continuous exercise, on the other hand, dries up the sweat, just as does the heat of the sun. The cold ness of one who is beginning to suffer from fever is due to a like cause. This is why the pouring of hot water over a person makes his hair 10 bristle ; for the cold being enclosed within and being compressed 3 causes the hair to stand on end.

Or is it because during the exertion the motion expels air from the solidified moisture and, owing to the heat caused by the motion, the moisture becomes breath on the surface of the body ; while on the other hand, when the exertion ceases, the heat also stops at the same time, and then the moisture, which we call perspiration, is generated from the condensa- 25 tion of the breath?

Now the friction is pleasant, since it involves the emission of vaporous moisture enclosed unnaturally in the body ; but the act of generation 1 Reading KOI avro 5e Richards. For the other humours in them are harsh, and what they imbibe, being soft, does not acquire consistency owing to the weakness of the natural heat.


In the summer, on the other hand, because the flesh is in a state of rarity, the heat escapes and our internal humours become less concocted and therefore need to be drawn off. In the summer, therefore, diseases are dry and hot, but in the winter they are moist and conse quently acute for they soon kill the patientfor concoction will not take place because of the abundance of the excre tion.

Why is it that men are more sensitive to salty and bad 8 I0 water when they are drunk than when they are sober?

AeTrrorepa yiverai ; but T. The digital Loeb Classical Library extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature.

Why is it that those who drink much unmixed wine fall 25 b asleep easily? This then is an external disturbance, while that caused by wine is internal ; but there is no real atistotle, the effect being the same whatever the cause of the disturbance. This is the reason too why 20 the armpits perspire most readily and freely ; for they are least subject to cooling.

Problems, Volume I

So that, though such persons are growing cold, the emission of semen is due not to cooling but to the simultaneous heating. That this is so is proved by the contraction of that part in sexual intercourse and the wasting of that region of the body.

Generally speaking the change which occurs when a warm, 5 dry summer follows immediately on a wet spring, being violent has a deleterious effect upon the body. Or is it because the young- are more inclined to sleep than the old? For these reasons we do not regard as our offspring that which is produced either from anything else in us except the semen, or from the semen when it is corrupted or fails to achieve perfection.

It is from these parts then in particular that any easily liquefied nourishment which is present there is squeezed out by the pressure.

But those who are effeminate by nature are so constituted that little or no semen is secreted where it is secreted by those who are in a natural state, 8 but it collects in this part of the body. Is it because copper contains more rarity and is less substantial, and the more solid a thing is the more heat it contains?