Editors’ Note: In her well-known book on The Shadow Negotiation, Kolb focused .. 4 See Deborah M. Kolb & Judith Williams, Breakthrough Bargaining, in a dynamic we have come to call the “shadow negotiation” – the complex and “Breakthrough Bargaining,” by Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams, which. Breakthrough Bargaining. RM By Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams. Power moves; Process Breakthrough Bargaining. Negotiation.

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The framework of strategic moves—making value visible, raising the costs of the status quo, enlisting allies, and managing the process—is a new approach that enhances the stances at the table of negotiators who are in disadvantaged positions. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. In this approach, interdependence is negotiated rather than surfacing as a residual or byproduct of an agreement.

Second, the advice from this work may itself be gendered and subject to gender stereotypes that people use to judge behavior. This norm may work well for males, who are likely to be offered developmental opportunities in key strategic positions, but it does not work effectively for women, who often get offered human resource assignments, with questionable benefits to their careers.

The effort to identify situational triggers that make gender more or less likely to be salient in a negotiation is another area of recent scholarship. Gender and Negotiator Competitiveness: Using this lens, we focus on what is silenced or ignored in the field.

In the latter situation, if the women want benefits to accrue to them, they need to negotiate about this norm—an act that the men generally do not have to do.

For women to achieve high joint gains, in this case profit, they need to be primed to pay more attention to their own needs. Furthermore, a gender lens offers a broad definition of negotiation—one that holds possibilities for transformative outcomes unimagined before the bargaining began. To all lawyers and professionals who are interested in taking Family Mediation training These organizational factors discipline women, as well as other marginal groups, and make gender issues salient in everyday negotiations.


Delegitimizing one of the parties during a negotiation reduces the likelihood of a mutually beneficial outcome for both bargainers, unless the target is able to resist.

Putnam, Through the Looking Glass: Similarly, Lisa Barron, in her studies of salary negotiation, identifies masculine and feminine orientations that are not necessarily defined by gender. The micro-processes through which this occurs have been invisible in most of the negotiation literature. Assertiveness, self-orientation, and an instrumental focus may backfire against women.

To focus on gender difference—whether to bemoan it or celebrate it—treats gender as an essential individual and stable characteristic of men and women.

Leading through Negotiation — FutureWorks Consulting

Rather than viewing it as a give and take or as a finite problem-solving process, negotiation can change the very definition of a dispute. Retweet on Twitter Riverdale Mediation Retweeted. These strategies, such as casting the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: For those interested in Bargainibg Mediation training In essence, the guidelines for mutual gains negotiations—focusing on interests, identifying priorities, trading across differences—aim to promote interdependence.

Negotiation and the Gender Divide The challenge is to understand how parties enact negotiation in a particularly gendered breakthroubh. Without amending to these issues, even this contemporary work may reinforce existing sterotypes and practices.

Breakthrough bargaining.

Attending to these social processes expands the strategic repertoire necessary for effective negotiations and provides bargainers with opportunities to connect during the process.

RWP, ; Gelfand, et al. Whereas the initiating party may view this action as a strategic move, made without malice, the target may experience it as an attack that undermines the legitimate claims she is making about herself and her proposals. If she acts decisively and pushes for what she needs—behaviors we might expect from leaders—she may be seen as too pushy.

Table of contents for Library of Congress control number

Individual Level and Breakthruogh Roles One way gender gets mobilized in negotiations concerns identity and how salient gender is to an individual negotiator. This brwakthrough of asymmetry has created double binds for women in other research arenas. From this perspective, gender is continually socially constructed, produced and reproduced. A feminist view of relationships calls for reframing such traditional concepts as interdependence and bargaining power. So the advice is directed only to women; namely, how can women overcome their deficiencies and better equip themselves to negotiate or how can they strengthen their instrumental orientation to the task.


Aspiring leaders are expected to willingly take on developmental opportunities—to refuse may preclude another offer.

In a paradoxical way, the common approach to thinking about interdependence hinges on individualistic notions of dependence and independence. Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process–also known as the shadow negotiation–can set the tone for a successful negotiation.

A second conceptualization, promotive interdependence, stems from the integrative bargaining literature. Power moves are used when two negotiating parties hold unequal power–for instance, subordinates and bosses; new and existing employees; and people of different races, ages, or genders.

By the same token, a woman might take up the role of helper or concentrate on the relationship, again because she perceives that the context calls for her to behave in that way.

An Evaluation of the Evidence.

Harvard Business Review on Winning Negotiations by Harvard Business Review

Kolb, Moving Out of the Armchair: Does Gender Make a Difference? A double bind test for a woman leader is the question can she be a leader and a woman too?

Thus, connecting rather than strategic activity forms the nature of interdependence. Second generation issues shape how gender plays out in workplace negotiations. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues.

Consider, for example, the opportunity structure in one breakthroough.

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