Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .

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The presented simulation results indicate that DARA outperforms other routing algorithms such as minimum hop routing, shortest path routing, and predictive throughput routing in terms of delay.

In FiWi access networks, packet loss may occur due to various failures, for example, gateway or OLT failure. An overview of recently proposed energy-efficient architectures as well as energy-efficient MAC and routing protocols for FiWi access networks was provided in [ 67 ].

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In fact, in emerging LTE-A heterogeneous networks HetNetswhere femtocells with small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs are introduced to supplement existing macrocells for the sake of an improved indoor coverage, enhanced cell-edge user performance, and boosted spectral efficiency per area unit, a cellular paradigm shift is required that recognizes the importance of high-speed backhaul connections, given that most 4G research so far has been focusing on the achievable performance gains in the wireless front-end only without looking into the details of backhaul implementations and possible backhaul bottlenecks [ 86 ].

Koonen 16th International Symposium on Modeling and…. Each ONU deploys a pair of fixed-tuned opportunnities and fixed-tuned receiver at dedicated upstream and downstream wavelength channels. Optical fiber does not go everywhere, but where it does go, it provides a huge amount of available bandwidth.

On the other hand, fixed and mobile WiMAX defines four and five scheduling services to support different traffic classes, respectively, while in IEEE The first proposed heuristic is a greedy algorithm that aims at finding a suitable placement of multiple ONUs to minimize the average Euclidean distance between wireless end-users and their closest ONU; that is, this heuristic targets only the wireless front-end and does not take the fiber layout of the optical backhaul into account.

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has citations based on the available data. It has been receiving an increasing amount of attention by other key players, for example, the Government of China most recently.


It was shown by means of simulation that the availability-aware routing algorithm is able to achieve a higher average availability for the selected paths than the shortest path routing, especially at low traffic loads.

FiWi networking research deals with the OWI of optical and wireless broadband access technologies, for example, wireless mesh network WMN.

While copper will certainly continue to play an important role in current and near-term broadband access networks, it is expected that FTTH deployment xccess will keep increasing gradually and will eventually become the predominant fixed wireline broadband technology by [ 5 ]. Given the location of the wireless mesh routers, the optimal placement of ONUs was found with the objective to minimize the total number of required wireless hops.

Subsequently, for each pair of router and gateway a single or alternatively for load balancing minimum-weight path s is are computed. View at Scopus P. Unlike DARA, each mesh router maintains a risk list to keep track of failures. The resultant peer-to-peer traffic can be routed either through the multihop wireless path within the wireless subnetwork or through the wireless-optical-wireless path, whereby traffic is first sent from mesh client via its associated mesh router to its closest ONU 1 and is then forwarded upstream to the OLT.

Navid Ghazisaidi, PhD – Google Scholar Citations

Based on the LSP information, each wireless link is assigned a weight according to its predicted transmission, synchronization, and queuing delay. For each successful perturbation, wireless end-users are reassigned to their nearest ONU. The authors also quantified the communications requirements of the aforementioned smart grid applications in terms of latency, bandwidth, reliability, and security and concluded that a reliable and fast smart grid communications infrastructure is necessary to enable real-time exchange of data among distributed power grid elements, for example, power generators, energy storage systems, and users.

Accesa important trend is the convergence of mobile cellular networks and WSNs in order to support machine-to-machine M2M communications. Thus, these findings show that FiWi networks are particularly beneficial for supporting peer-to-peer communications among wireless mesh clients and are able to achieve a significantly higher network throughput than conventional WMNs.

Wireless networks aimed at meeting specific service requirements while coping with particular transmission impairments and optimizing the utilization of the nefworks resources to ensure cost-effectiveness and satisfaction for the user.


Each RN consists of a protection unit and a bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer based on a multilayer dielectric interference filter.

Integrated routing algorithms compute paths across the optical-wireless interface by taking both opportuities wireless and optical domains into account. In the case of DTS-insensitive traffic, a path from the ingress router to opportunities of the external buffers is computed. Typically, FTTB networks use a multidwelling unit MDU optical network unit ONU in the basement of the building to terminate the optical signal coming from the CO and distribute the converted signal across a separate network inside the building.

According to [ 92 ], there is a clear trend toward including additional mobility nftworks in future LTE releases to ensure a smooth migration from traditional network controlled to user equipment UE assisted mobility as a remedy for reducing signaling overhead via fiber oppirtunities between macrocells and small cells.

Toward this goal, fiber together with next-generation wireless broadband technologies will play an increasingly vital role in future broadband access networks. In E-MPCP, the GATE message is modified such that it contains an additional 3-byte field called the next cycle time, which denotes the time interval between two consecutive polling operations of a given access gateway. Apart from realizing low-cost microcellular radio networks, optical fibers can also be used to support a wide variety of other radio signals.

More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher weights and vice versa.

Advances in Optics

FiWi research inquires new methods of optical RF generation exploiting fiber nonlinearities and various modulation techniques.

While DSL suffers from severe distance and noise limitations, HFC falls short to efficiently carry data traffic due to its upstream noise and crosstalk accumulation. The explosion of mobile data traffic has mandated the need for a new cellular architecture. Multihop relaying is used to extend the range.

Koonen Journal of Lightwave Technology Ppportunities and DeploymentsA. In FiWi networks, peer-to-peer traffic can be carried in two ways: Access network Search for additional papers on this topic.