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Apomorphic characters for monophyletic taxa within Mantodea are discussed. The anterior lamel-lar duplicature in these taxa covers the head only posteriorly or paktikum not at all. The internal relationships within Dictyoptera and among its subgroups are beyond the goal of the present study and will therefore not be discussed in detail. Cladograms of Sibyllidae and Toxoderini. Although the head is well able to revolve around the zoologiscches axis in these taxa, movement in the other planes is much more restricted pers.

How- ever, several of the specimens are possibly early instar nymphs that may exhibit much more slender and fragile spines than the adults see also chapter 4.

The relationships among the Dictyopteran subgroups as well as their sistergroup have been discussed for a long time. Additionally, the current state of know-ledge is that Chaeteessa does kkeenthal have a tibial spur e. It is either autapo-morphic for Mantodea except Mantoida with a loss in several lineages, or it has evolved convergently in Chaeteessa, Metallyticus and Mantoidea but see discussion of Mantoidea in chapter 2.

Zoologischs morphological traits characterizing the group are also shared by other Mantodea.

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Wherever Eumantodea may have originated, many of the modern Mantodea have been shown to have originated from sequential independent radiation events following Figs. This reduced the number of subtaxa of Mantidae but had no further effect on the understanding of their phylogenetic relations. Nanomantinae, Tropidomantinae and Hapa-lomantinae were not found to be monophyletic.

They dwell the stony and sandy deserts from northern Africa and Turkey throughout the Middle East up to India e. In conclusion it can be stated that the monophyly of many of the families and subfamilies of the traditional classi-fication is not supported by molecular and morphological studies. Simi-larly, Choeradodinae and Orthoderinae were each only represented by one genus.

Polyneoptera also comprises Pleco- ptera stonefliesEmbioptera webspinnersPhasma-todea stick insects, walking leavesOrthoptera sensu stricto [i. None of the other studies allowed to make an approach at the putative monophyly of Mantoidea, mostly due to a small taxon sample e. In some taxa the head process distally has a lobe-like, asymmetrical shape its base is usually mas-sive and symmetrical.

Wieland , The Phylogenetic System of Mantodea

One or both ventral cervical sclerites may be split into several smaller parts, for instance in Acanthops, Brunneria, Gongylus, Humbertiella Fig. They are present, for example, in some Vatinae [Zoolea Fig.

None of the larger stud- ies, neither molecular nor morphological, encompassed representatives of all three traditional subgroups of Amor-phoscelidae. Museum material was not softened in order to avoid damage to the often fragile and valuable specimens. Rare species or such that were not available as ethanol-preserved samples were studied as dry material from museum collections. The Volumes IV Arthropoda: The ridges may be large and form bizarre crests as, for example, in Blepharopsis Fig.


The Handbook of Zoology is additionally offered as a database, the Handbook of Zoology Online, which can easily be searched and rapidly updated. Mantoida maya, living adult from Florida picture courtesy of Machele Kkwnthal length of specimen about 2 cm. This group was established as Eremo-philidae by Stl All living mantises, which have fore femur with discoidal spines.

Zoologisches Praktikum (German, Paperback)

Regarding this, the descriptions of prognathous and hypognathous orien-tations of the head are irritating and incorrect. The anterior, transverse part is no more than a slender bridge basisternal clasp of Wieland who did not take the posterior part into account in Mantoida Crampton To avoid this, I will define the orientation for the body structures as used herein.

Theopompella and Dactylopteryx from Africa formed a taxon among the Afrotropical Mantodea in a comparatively distal position in the phylogenetic tree.

Although our knowledge regarding many taxonomic groups has grown enormously over the last decades, it is praktikm the objective of the Handbook of Zoology to be comprehensive in the sense that text and references together provide a solid basis for further research. Compsothespis anomala,anterior view.

Wing characters that did not show any intersexual variation in macropterous species were encoded for both sexes combined.